Baez S, Santamaría-García H, Orozco J, Fittipaldi S, García AM, Pino M, Ibáñez A. Your misery is no longer my pleasure: Reduced schadenfreude in Huntington's disease families. Cortex. 2016.

Your misery is no longer my pleasure: Reduced schadenfreude in Huntington’s disease families.

Autores Baez S, Santamaría-García H, Orozco J, Fittipaldi S, García AM, Pino M, Ibáñez A.
Año 2016
Journal Cortex
Volumen Oct; 83:78-85
Abstract Schadenfreude – pleasure at others’ misfortunes – has been systematically related to ventral striatum activity. This brain region is affected early in individuals with manifest and pre-manifest Huntington’s disease (HD). However, the experience of schadenfreude has not yet been investigated in HD. In this study, 21 manifest HD patients, 19 first-degree asymptomatic relatives, and 23 healthy controls performed an experimental task designed to trigger schadenfreude, envy (another social emotion acting as an affective control condition), and control situations. Both HD patients and first-degree relatives experienced lower schadenfreude in response to others’ misfortunes, with no group differences in ratings of envy and control conditions. These results offer unprecedented evidence of a highly specific impairment in reward processing, extending previous reports in manifest and pre-manifest HD individuals. Moreover, these findings suggest that early striatal impairments may be related to reduced feelings of schadenfreude. In sum, our work contributes to the understanding of emotional impairments in early stages of HD, while shedding light on their neural correlates.
Resumen En este estudio demostramos que la afectación temprana del estriado (una región del sistema de recompensa) puede impactar en las emociones morales. Pacientes con enfermedad de Huntington, y familiares asintomáticos presentaron una reducción de Schadenfreude (placer por el sufrimiento ajeno en ciertas situaciones de injusticia moral) en comparación con controles. Este es el primer estudio que conecta los déficits del sistema de recompensa gatillados por atrofia del estriado con las emociones sociales y morales.

Gonzalez-Gadea ML, Sigman M, Rattazzi A, Lavin C, Rivera-Rei A, Marino J, Manes F, Ibañez A. Neural markers of social and monetary rewards in children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Autism Spectrum Disorder. Sci Rep 2016.

Neural markers of social and monetary rewards in children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Autism Spectrum Disorder.

Autores Gonzalez-Gadea ML, Sigman M, Rattazzi A, Lavin C, Rivera-Rei A, Marino J, Manes F, Ibañez A.
Año 2016
Journal  Sci Rep
Volumen Jul 28
Abstract Recent theories of decision making propose a shared value-related brain mechanism for encoding monetary and social rewards. We tested this model in children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and control children. We monitored participants’ brain dynamics using high density-electroencephalography while they played a monetary and social reward tasks. Control children exhibited a feedback Error-Related Negativity (fERN) modulation and Anterior Cingulate Cortex (ACC) source activation during both tasks. Remarkably, although cooperation resulted in greater losses for the participants, the betrayal options generated greater fERN responses. ADHD subjects exhibited an absence of fERN modulation and reduced ACC activation during both tasks. ASD subjects exhibited normal fERN modulation during monetary choices and inverted fERN/ACC responses in social options than did controls. These results suggest that in neurotypicals, monetary losses and observed disloyal social decisions induced similar activity in the brain value system. In ADHD children, difficulties in reward processing affected early brain signatures of monetary and social decisions. Conversely, ASD children showed intact neural markers of value-related monetary mechanisms, but no brain modulation by prosociality in the social task. These results offer insight into the typical and atypical developments of neural correlates of monetary and social reward processing.
Resumen En este trabajo, usando dos tareas económicas, una de toma de decisiones individual y otra de cooperación social mostramos que los niños controles tiene repuestas cerebrales de recompensa (corteza cingulada) tanto ante las ganancias monetarias como ante la cooperación social. En sujetos con trastorno de déficit atencional e hiperactividad (TDAH), las respuestas tempranas a ambas tareas estuvieron reducidas. En participantes con trastornos del espectro autista (TEA), se observaron respuestas cerebrales normales ante las ganancias económicas, pero la cooperación social no activo el sistema de recompensa. Los resultados apoyan la idea de un sustrato común para la gratificación por ganancias monetarias y cooperación social, y su afectación en cuadros psiquiátricos.

García AM, Ibáñez A. A touch with words: Dynamic synergies between manual actions and language. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2016

A touch with words: Dynamic synergies between manual actions and language.

Autores García AM, Ibáñez A.
Año 2016
Journal  Neurosci Biobehav Rev
Volumen 2016.04.022
Abstract Manual actions are a hallmark of humanness. Their underlying neural circuitry gives rise to species-specific skills and interacts with language processes. In particular, multiple studies show that hand-related expressions – verbal units evoking manual activity – variously affect concurrent manual actions, yielding apparently controversial results (interference, facilitation, or null effects) in varied time windows. Through a systematic review of 108 experiments, we show that such effects are driven by several factors, such as the level of verbal processing, action complexity, and the time-lag between linguistic and motor processes. We reconcile key empirical patterns by introducing the Hand-Action-Network Dynamic Language Embodiment (HANDLE) model, an integrative framework based on neural coupling dynamics and predictive-coding principles. To conclude, we assess HANDLE against the backdrop of other action-cognition theories, illustrate its potential applications to understand high-level deficits in motor disorders, and discuss key challenges for further development. In sum, our work aligns with the ‘pragmatic turn’, moving away from passive and static representationalist perspectives to a more dynamic, enactive, and embodied conceptualization of cognitive processes.
Resumen En un sinfín de situaciones cotidianas, nuestro lenguaje se articula espontáneamente con movimientos manuales. En este trabajo, formulamos hipótesis basadas en la dinámica de redes cerebrales para explicar cómo los procesos lingüísticos interactúan sinérgicamente con dichas acciones concurrentes. A partir de ellas formulamos el primer modelo neurocognitivo que explica los efectos observados en cientos de experimentos de cognición corporizada.