Bridging psychiatry and neurology through social neuroscience. Autores Ibanez A, Kuljis R, Matallana D, Manes F. Año 2014 Journal Ibanez A, Kuljis R, Matallana D, Manes F. Volumen 13(2): 148-149 Abstract Otra información En este trabajo se resalta el rol multinivel de la neurociencia social para construir puentes entre los cuadros psiquiátricos y neurológicos a través de la presentación de […]
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Methodological considerations regarding cognitive interventions in dementia. Autores Ibanez A, Richly P, Roca M, Manes F. Año 2014 Journal Ibanez A, Richly P, Roca M, Manes F. Volumen 6:212. Abstract Otra información Las intervenciones cognitivas en la demencia son un aspecto esencial en la rehabilitación. Sin embargo sus efectos no han sido adecuadamente respaldados en la mayoría de las investigaciones […]
Mapping memory binding onto the connectomes temporal dynamics: Towards a combined biomarker for Alzheimers disease. Autores Ibanez A, Parra M. Año 2014 Journal Ibanez A, Parra M. Volumen 8:237. Abstract Otra información En este trabajo proponemos que tras la caída de la hipótesis de cascada amiloide en al enfermedad del Alzheimer (EA), la conectividad cerebral distribuida […]
Multiple studies have tried to establish the distinctive profile of individuals with Asperger’s syndrome (AS). However, recent reports suggest that adults with AS feature heterogeneous cognitive profiles. The present study explores inter-individual variability in children with AS through group comparison and multiple case series analysis. All participants completed an extended battery including measures of fluid and crystallized intelligence, executive functions, theory of mind, and classical neuropsychological tests. Significant group differences were found in theory of mind and other domains related to global information processing. However, the AS group showed high inter-individual variability (both sub- and supra-normal performance) on most cognitive tasks. Furthermore, high fluid intelligence correlated with less general cognitive impairment, high cognitive flexibility, and speed of motor processing. In light of these findings, we propose that children with AS are characterized by a distinct, uneven pattern of cognitive strengths and weaknesses
In two self-paced, sentence-by-sentence reading experiments, we examined the difference in the processing of Spanish discourses containing overt and null pronouns. In both experiments, antecedents appeared in a single phrase (John met Mary) or in a conjoined phrase (John and Mary met). In Experiment 1, we compared reading times of sentences containing singular overt and null pronouns referring to the first or to the second mentioned antecedent. Overt pronouns caused a processing delay relative to null pronouns when they referred to the first antecedent in single but not in conjoined phrases. In Experiment 2, we compared reading times of sentences containing overt and null pronouns referring to singular or plural entities. Plural null pronouns were read faster than their singular counterparts in conjoined conditions. Plural overt pronouns were read more slowly than their null counterparts both in single and conjoined conditions. We explain our findings in a framework based on the notion of balance between processing cost and discourse function in line with the Informational Load Hypothesis.
En este trabajo analizamos la validez (fiabilidad y consistencia) de la versión español de Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST) en una muestra de 400 usuarios de servicios de tratamiento drogas y alcohol ambulatorios y residenciales. La consistencia interna, el coeficiente de correlación intraclase (CCI) para la comparación test-retest y las pruebas de validación externa arrojaron valores adecuados, demostrando buenas propiedades psicomátricas del ASSIST.
El articulo analiza a través de una encuesta a 1185 médicos generalistas y 792 psiquiatras latinoamericanos la diferencia en el abordaje en relación a los factores de riesgo vascular de estos profesionales de la salud ante pacientes en tratamiento con antipsicóticos.
Depersonalization-Derealization Disorder (DD) typically manifests as a disruption of body self-awareness. Interoception defined as the cognitive processing of body signals has been extensively considered as a key processing for body self-awareness. In consequence, the purpose of this study was to investigate whether there are systematic differences in interoception between a patient with DD and controls that might explain the disembodiment symptoms suffered in this disease. To assess interoception, we utilized a heartbeat detection task and measures of functional connectivity derived from fMRI networks in interoceptive/exteroceptivo/mind wandering states. Additionally, we evaluated empathic abilities to test the association between interoception and emotional experience. The results showed patient´s impaired performance in the heartbeat detection task when compared to controls. Furthermore, regarding functional connectivity, we found a lower global brain connectivity of the patient relative to controls only in the interoceptive state. He also presented a particular pattern of impairments in affective empathy. To our knowledge, this is the first experimental research that assesses the relationship between interoception and DD combining behavioral and neurobiological measures. Our results suggest that altered neural mechanisms and cognitive processes regarding body signaling might be engaged in DD phenomenology. Moreover, our study contributes experimental data to the comprehension of brain-body interactions and the emergence of self-awareness and emotional feelings.
An enduring question is unity vs. separability of executive deficits resulting from impaired frontal lobe function. In previous studies, we have asked how executive deficits link to a conventional measure of fluid intelligence, obtained either by standard tests of novel problem-solving, or by averaging performance in a battery of novel tasks. For some classical executive tasks, such as the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST), Verbal Fluency, and Trail Making Test B (TMTB), frontal deficits are entirely explained by fluid intelligence. However, on a second set of executive tasks, including tests of multitasking and decision making, deficits exceed those predicted by fluid intelligence loss. In this paper we discuss how these results shed light on the diverse clinical phenomenology observed in frontal dysfunction, and present new data on a group of 15 schizophrenic patients and 14 controls. Subjects were assessed with a range of executive tests and with a general cognitive battery used to derive a measure of fluid intelligence. Group performance was compared and fluid intelligence was introduced as a covariate. In line with our previous results, significant patient-control differences in classical executive tests were removed when fluid intelligence was introduced as a covariate. However, for tests of multitasking and decision making, deficits remained. We relate our findings to those of previous factor analytic studies describing a single principal component, which accounts for much of the variance of schizophrenic patients’ cognitive performance. We propose that this general factor reflects low fluid intelligence capacity, which accounts for much but not all cognitive impairment in this patient group. Partialling out the general effects of fluid intelligence, we propose, may clarify the role of additional, more specific cognitive impairments in conditions such as schizophrenia.
Although motor-language coupling is now being extensively studied, its underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. In this sense, a crucial opposition has emerged between the non-representational and the representational views of embodiment. The former posits that action language is grounded on the non-brain motor system directly engaged by musculoskeletal activity â i.e., peripheral involvement of ongoing actions. Conversely, the latter proposes that such grounding is afforded by the brain´s motor system â i.e., activation of neural areas representing motor action. We addressed this controversy through the action-sentence compatibility effect (ACE) paradigm, which induces a contextual coupling of motor actions and verbal processing. ACEs were measured in three patient groups â early Parkinson´s disease (EPD), neuromyelitis optica (NMO), and acute transverse myelitis (ATM) patients â as well as their respective healthy controls. NMO and ATM constitute models of injury to non-brain motor areas and the peripheral motor system, whereas EPD provides a model of brain motor system impairment. In our study, EPD patients exhibited impaired ACE and verbal processing relative to healthy participants, NMO, and ATM patients. These results indicate that the processing of action-related words is mainly subserved by a cortico-subcortical motor network system, thus supporting a brain-based embodied view on action language. More generally, our findings are consistent with contemporary perspectives for which action/verb processing depends on distributed brain networks supporting context-sensitive motor-language coupling.