Starkstein S, Migliorelli R, Manes F, Tesón A, Petracchi M, Chemerinski E, Sabe L, Leiguarda R.  The prevalence and clinical correlates of apathy and irritability in Alzheimer's disease. The American Journal of Psychiatry 1995 10.3389/fnbeh.2014.00243

The prevalence and clinical correlates of apathy and irritability in Alzheimer’s disease.

Autores Starkstein S, Migliorelli R, Manes F, Tesón A, Petracchi M, Chemerinski E, Sabe L, Leiguarda R. 
Año 1995
Journal  Starkstein S, Migliorelli R, Manes F, Tesón A, Petracchi M, Chemerinski E, Sabe L, Leiguarda R. 
Volumen 2(6): 540-546
Abstract  We examined the prevalence and correlates of apathy and irritability in a consecutive series of 101 patients with probable Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Based on clinical criteria, 46 (46%) patients had apathy, and 13 (13%) patients had irritability. Apathy was significantly associated with more severe impairments in activities of daily living, significantly more severe extrapyramidal signs, and a significantly higher frequency of both major depression and dysthymia. Patients with irritability had significantly more severe impairments in activities of daily living and significantly higher depression and anosognosia scores. On the other hand, neither apathy nor irritability were significantly associated with deficits in specific cognitive domains.
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