Frontotemporal Dementia Institute

What is Frontotemporal Dementia? 

 

Frontotemporal Dementia (FTD) encompasses a set of disorders that affect the frontal and temporal brain regions. The frontal lobe is largely concerned with behavioral regulation, while the temporal lobe is involved, among other functions, in language skills. Each disorder will trigger a characteristic symptom that depends on the primarily affected areas. FTD is the second most common dementia among middle-aged adults and involves great difficulties for caregivers and leads to high dependency patients. Clinical variants include a frontal or behavioral variant (when more frontal than temporal areas are affected) and a temporal or language variant (when more temporal than frontal areas are affected).

 

Clinical variants 

 

Clinical variants of FTD are distinguished according to the brain atrophy patterns and its consequent impact on the behavior and cognitive abilities of the patient: 

  • Behaviour variant Frontotemporal Dementia (bvFTD): is characterized by an early and gradual decline in social and personal behaviour. 
  • Temporal variant or Primary Progressive Aphasia (PPA): is characterized by progressive difficulties in language. It can be classified into 3 clinical subtypes:
  1. Semantic Dementia 
  2. Non- fluent Progressive Aphasia 
  3. Logopenic Aphasia 

 

In addition, research progress enabled the possibility for clinicians to recognize FTD profiles that include motor symptoms (I.e., cortico-basal degeneration, Progressive Supranuclear Paralysis, and Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis). 

 

Causes and Etiology

 

The cause behind FTD is still uncertain. However, research has begun to reveal the possible changes that could explain the characteristic symptoms of this condition. It is now recognized that there are structural changes in proteins, which are vital for healthy brain tissue, as they are responsible for key functions such as maintaining the skeleton of neurons (tau protein), regulation of gene expression (TDP43 protein), and cell growth (progranulin). The involvement of these proteins could, in turn, generate the accumulation of other defective cellular proteins that lead to neural degeneration and consequent brain atrophy.

 

Diagnosis

 

Data collection for diagnosis

 

A trained and experienced team of health professionals may identify the main features that characterize FTD and distinguish them from another possible diagnosis. 

 

Medical specialists that often show the greatest capacity in the evaluation of cognitive and behavioral changes are: General Neurologists, Neuropsychologists, and Neurologists or Psychiatrists specialized in behavioral neurology.

 

The diagnosis of frontotemporal degeneration involves: 

  • Medical history and detailed neurological examinations. 
  • Neuropsychological examinations for the evaluation of language, behaviour, memory, executive, and visual-spatial functions. 
  • Use of neuroimaging to determine where and how many brain regions have atrophied or have experienced decreased blood flow. 

 

Tests Used in the Diagnosis of Frontotemporal Degeneration

 

There is no single test that confirms or rules out the diagnosis of FTD.

 

However, both, neuropsychological evaluations and neuroimaging studies (MRI, SPECT, and PET) have shown specific characteristics and clinical findings compatible with FTD that can be identified and may contribute to the diagnostic process. 

 

Researchers are still looking for a specific FTD diagnostic test. This issue involved different research areas including genetic exams, biochemical testing (studies of blood proteins, cerebrospinal fluid, and other tissues), and neuroimaging. 

 

Some tests used during the diagnostic process are:

  • Routine blood tests: These tests identify conditions that show FTD-like characteristics as thyroid disease, vitamin B12 deficiency, infections (i.e., syphilis, HIV), dehydration, and cancer. These conditions involve different treatments and some of them have a cure. 
  • Neurological and Neuropsychiatric Examination: A detailed examination of the entire nervous system includes: 
  • Obtaining past medical history. 
  • Physical exam: auditory, motor, visual, and cardiac function assessment. 
  • Cognitive exam: Memory, planification, organization, behaviour, mood, and visual-spatial skills assessment. 
  • Neuropsychological assessment: These are written tests and interviews that assess cognition and helps identify strengths and weaknesses areas. Tasks include memory, concentration, visual-spatial, problem-solving, basic mathematics, and language skills evaluations.
  • Language Evaluation: The objective of this evaluation is to determine the clinical subtype of FTD temporal variant present in the patient (I.e., Non-Fluent Progressive Aphasia, Semantic Dementia, and Logopenic Aphasia), to define its treatment. In order to do so, spontaneous language, auditory-verbal recognition, understanding of sequential orders, auditory comprehension of the lexicon, semantic association, auditory and visual lexical decision, denomination, repetition, comprehensive reading of sentences, are evaluated. 
  • CT (computed tomography): This is a noninvasive scanner that uses x-rays and creates cross-sectional images of soft tissues, bones, and blood vessels. These Images are particularly well-suited to assess bleeding, tumors, or other brain disturbances. Sometimes, they can also show evidence of brain atrophy or retraction that may be suggestive of FTD.
  • MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging): This is a non-invasive procedure that uses magnetic and radio waves to produce images from multiple angles and provide a detailed view of brain structures that are not visible with CT. MRI can identify brain atrophy that could be suggestive of FTD. 
  • PET (Positron Emission Tomography): A type of nuclear medicine scanner that consists of capturing cross-sectional images, just like CT. However, unlike the structural images of CT and MRI, PET captures functional images. These types of images provide a view of how distinct parts of the brain work. The appearance of temporal and frontal lobe areas that are not as active as they should, could indicate FTD. PET consists of an injection of a radioisotope, or tracer, into a hand or arm vein. The tracer emits positrons, producing gamma rays, which are similar to x-rays. These are detected by the PET scanner and analyzed by a computer to form an image of brain metabolism.
  • SPECT (single-photon emission computed tomography): It is a type of nuclear medicine scanner like PET. It measures blood flow and brain activity levels, which makes it a diagnostic tool for identifying cognitive and behavioral problems in patients with neurodegenerative conditions such as FTD. 
  • Functional MRI (fMRI): fMRI is a type of resonator that shows changes in brain blood flow. FTD examinations are performed on a resonator. 

 

 Differential Diagnoses 

 

Frontotemporal degeneration is not as rare as we think, it is considered the second most common cause of early-onset dementia. However, due to the wide variety of symptoms and their gradual development, it is often confused initially with psychiatric disorders (i.e., depression, bipolar disorder, and late-onset schizophrenia), Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, and vascular dementia.

 

Differential diagnosis between FTD and Alzheimer’s disease 

 

Both frontotemporal degeneration (FTD) and Alzheimer’s disease (AD) are characterized by brain atrophy and a gradual and progressive loss of brain function. However, several significant differences help distinguish one from the other: 

  • FTD presents fundamentally behaviour and language dysfunction, while the main feature of the typical form of Alzheimer’s disease is memory loss.
  • FTD often begins earlier than AD with an average age of onset between 50-60 years, 10 years before the average age at which patients with AD are diagnosed. 
  • Patients with FTD show behavioural and personality changes (lack of concern for social norms and other people and lack of introspection of their own behaviors) but retain fundamental characteristics of memory (keeping a record of daily events and time-space orientation).
  • Patients with AD exhibit increasing memory deficits but typically preserve appropriate social behaviors. 
  • Some patients with FTD may have only language dysfunction (this is evident in the diverse types of progressive aphasia: semantic dementia, non-fluent progressive aphasia, and logopenic aphasia). The language loss pattern may be specific, for example, an inability to name familiar day-to-day objects. 
  • Language impairment in patients with AD is a milder problem in the evocation of names and words.
  • Patients with FTD are likely to have early motor abnormalities, such as walking difficulties, stiffness or tremor (similar to Parkinson’s disease), muscle atrophy, and weakness. 

 

 

Genetics in FTD

 

Is FTD hereditary?

 

FTD cases may be sporadic (unknown family history of FTD), familiar (there is at least one first- or second-degree relative affected), or hereditary (at least three family members affected in two or more successive generations) and the Autosomal dominant inheritance.

 

Most cases of FTD are not inherited, but sporadic. Sometimes, the neurological health of some family members is unknown, and therefore it is not possible to rule (discard or exclude) out a genetic component. However, 40% of individuals with FTD have a family history that includes at least one other family member who also has or has had a neurodegenerative disease.

 

Most genetic mutations are detected in cases with a known family history of neurodegenerative diseases. However, a small percentage of families with genetic variants of unknown significance or sporadic FTD may also have a detectable genetic cause. 

 

In about 15-40% of all cases of FTD, a genetic cause (i.e., a mutation in the gene) can be identified, as the probable cause of the disease and in most cases is an inherited mutation.

 

Clinically, both hereditary and sporadic FTD exhibit the same symptoms, making family history evaluation the most appropriate tool for determining the probability of a genetic cause.

 

 

Treatment 

 

Although no treatment has yet been found that can reverse the progression of FTD, both pharmacological and non-pharmacological alternatives can relieve some symptoms and improve the quality of life of the patient and his or her family. Therefore, the approach for both diagnosis and treatment of FTD must be carried out by an interdisciplinary professional group with extensive experience in this pathology. In addition, research in this field is progressing rapidly and numerous clinical trials are being conducted.

 

 

Our MISSION is to contribute scientific knowledge on Frontotemporal Dementia, provide information to society, and raise awareness about its existence, to achieve an early and effective diagnosis, as well as providing support to both, patients and caregivers, improving their quality of life.

 

 

 

 

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OUR TEAM

 

The IDFT benefits from the network of researchers that INECO Foundation has been building since its creation and has important links with non-governmental institutions as well as international organizations interested In FTD research.  

 

DIRECTORS

 

Dr. Florencia Vallejos 

Dr. Teresa Torralva

 

 

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FTD BEHAVIOURAL VARIANT

 

The behavioural variant of frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) is characterized by an insidious beginning and gradual progression, where patients present an early decline in both, individual and social behavior. Behavioral disorders are characterized by social disinhibition, loss of disease awareness, hygiene and personal care problems, mental rigidity, changes in diet (I.e., Some patients eat compulsively and have a striking preference for sweet foods), inappropriate behavior, and compulsive routines or rituals. Although, some patients may develop instead, apathy profiles. During the onset of the disease and for some time, patients usually preserved cognitive skills such as language, memory, attention, orientation, and their IQ is not usually altered. FTD diagnosis might be challenging even for experienced doctors. In the absence of a definitive clinical test, this diagnosis is based on behavioral criteria, family interviews, and brain MRI, which should show frontal atrophy.

 

Theoretical Support 

 

The cognitive profile of patients with behavioral variant FTD is particularly manifest by failures in executive functions, including difficulties in selective care and inhibitory control, task changes, planning, and organization. 

 

Patients usually begin to have symptoms at the age of 50, although this can occur between the ages of 20 and 80. As with all FTD variants, the symptoms of FTDbv change from person to person. Not all symptoms are experienced in the same way, nor are they developed in a pre-determined sequence.

 

Behavioral symptoms 

 

  • Hyperorality behaviors: include compulsive eating, dietary compulsions in which the person restricts to eat only a certain kind of food, (i.e., a certain candy taste, or eating at a single fast-food restaurant), or trying to consume non-edible objects. 
  • Stereotypical and/or repetitive behaviors: May include rereading the same book multiple times, rubbing hands, clapping, humming a song repeatedly, or walking to the same place every day.
  • Early deterioration of personal hygiene habits: failure to perform the daily tasks of bathing, washing, and dressing properly. 
  • Hyperactive behaviors: Some patients exhibit behaviors that may include agitation, extremely fast walking, dispersion, frustration, and aggression. 
  • Hypersexual behaviors: range from sexual games to compulsive masturbation.
  • Impulsive acts: may include shoplifting, compulsive shopping, taking food from someone else’s plate, etc.

 

Emotional symptoms 

 

  • Apathy: indifference to all events and the environment that surrounds them. Apathy in these patients may present poor initiative and lack of motivation. 
  • Lack of introspection in one’s behavior: This lack of introspection develops early. Generally, patients do not recognize changes in their own behavior, nor are they aware of the effect that these may cause on others, including their loved ones.
  • Emotional flattening: Develops early in the course of illness. It is usually expressed as a loss of emotional warmth, empathy and sympathy, that can evolve to and the development of indifference to other people, including their loved ones.
  • Mood changes: can be abrupt and frequent.

 

Neurological symptoms: These symptoms are similar to those seen in Parkinson’s disease. The term «Parkinsonism» is used to distinguish the fact that these patients do not have Parkinson’s disease, although they exhibit some of these symptoms. Symptoms include: decreased facial expression, bradykinesia (slowing of movements), stiffness (resistance to imposed movement), and postural instability.

 

Main pathological characteristics

 

Patients with behavioral variant FTD (bvFTD) may have an accumulation of one of these three abnormal proteins in their brain cells: TDP-43, tau, or sarcoma fusion protein (FUS). Most of these proteins accumulate in frontal and temporal brain areas, that have lost large volume. 

 

Genetics 

 

Most cases of bvFTD have not been associated with genetic mutations.

 

Treatment 

 

The non-pharmacological approach is often the first therapeutic line in the middle stages of dementia. It is a holistic and exhaustive approach that incorporates the care of physical, behavioral, emotional, and social dimensions. It functions as a multidisciplinary team among its members and interdisciplinary in its process.

 

As the disease progresses, loss of function is inevitable. Treatment aims to maximize patient’s quality of life and assist their family members to succeed in their roles as primary caregivers. This may provoke a less negative perception of deterioration and a greater sense of quality of life.

 

The non-pharmacological treatment will be oriented towards behavioral changes and the executive functioning of the patient. Thus, based on their strengths and weaknesses, behavioral strategies and programs will be designed to optimize communication, self-management, initiative, and other behaviors that interfere with rehabilitation and social interactions.

 

Rehabilitation treatment does not intend to separate patients from their environment and caregivers, but to include them as an essential component of the team, as they continue to implement strategies learned during restorative and ability treatments. They are well-educated in-patient care, and in creating a healthy environment that reduces the risk of physical injury to both patients and their caregivers.

 

Individual sessions 

 

Several types of individual treatments for patients with behavioral variant FTD include: 

 

  • Speech therapy: Aimed at stimulating the understanding, and expression of language in an individual setting, in order to promote language skills on each patient, designing a plan based on their preserved abilities and incorporating new strategies.
  • Cognitive rehabilitation: A structured set of therapeutic activities specially designed to retrain an individual’s cognitive abilities. The focus is on improving specific cognitive deficits such as memory, attention, learning, planning, and judgment. The main goal is to enhance the patient’s quality of life and ability to function both at home and throughout the community.
  • Occupational Therapy: Takes care of the promotion of health and well-being throughout occupation. The aim is to enable patients to perform tasks that may optimize their ability to participate in their own occupations, or by modifying the environment to reinforce patient´s participation. 
  • Music therapy: Carry out by a specialized professional that offers an integrative, non-pharmacological, and non-intimidating approach, who works with physical and emotional aspects of the patient, promoting a better quality of life.

 

Group sessions 

 

Several types of group treatments for patients with behavioral variant FTD include:

 

  • Cognitive Group: The memory workshop or cognitive stimulation group is intended for the systematized exercise of functions such as attention, memory, planning, and constructive vision activities in an environment of social integration that favors peer exchange.
  • Music Therapy Group: In a pleasant and relaxed environment, the goal of this group is to restore, maintain and improve cognitive, physical, and emotional functioning through shared music-making and the inherent qualities of music. No prior musical knowledge is required. 
  • Art Therapy Group: This workshop seeks to stimulate those cognitive, social, and emotional functions in each patient, through various non-verbal languages such as plastic art, collages, drawing, and sculpture. As in Music Workshop, no prior artistic knowledge is required.
  • Reminiscence Group: This workshop provides a space for participants to discuss past personal facts, along with the most outstanding historical and cultural events of the 20th century.

 

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FTD: SEMANTIC DEMENTIA 

 

The semantic variant PPA is a language alteration in which patients show a progressive deterioration in the understanding of words (especially nouns) and the recognition of objects, while other cognitive faculties remain preserved. Patients with semantic PPA also lose the ability to name spontaneously day-to-day objects and recognize the meaning of specific words. 

 

Unlike other FTD subtypes, semantic PPA does not produce changes in behavior or personality until advanced stages. Most people with progressive aphasia maintain the ability of self-care and interest in the external world. In some cases, patients even maintain their jobs for a few years after the onset of the disease.

 

 Main clinical characteristics

 

  • The distinctive characteristic of semantic PPA is the difficulty in producing or recognizing familiar words. For example, when patients are shown a picture of a cat, they can neither name it nor recognize the word even after the examiner discloses what it is. The patient may typically ask “what is a cat?” when the word arises in a conversation or during evaluation. At first, the difficulty occurs with rare words, and, in later stages of the disease, it extends to common nouns. Verbs and abstract words remain conspicuously respected.
  • Fluid spontaneous speech is preserved. Especially, in the early stages of the disease, patients have the ability to speak about the meaning of a specific word that they cannot otherwise generate. In later stages, pauses to find the right word become a common thing in their speeches, and they may also experience difficulties in naming day-to-day objects.
  • Some patients can present problems in recognizing familiar objects and faces. In fact, the presence of these signs may confirm the diagnosis.
  • Neuroimaging studies showed volume loss, decreased blood flow, and decreased neuronal activity in left temporal lobe patients, however, left-handed patients can present semantic PPA from right temporal lobe degeneration. 

 

Clinical features in late stages include typical behavioral abnormalities of FTD (which were described above in the behavioral variant FTD review). 

 

 

Main Pathological Characteristics 

 

Unlike non-fluent/agrammatic PPA, most patients with semantic PPA have had an accumulation of TDP-43 without abnormal tau protein in their brain cells. After brain autopsy, some patients with a semantic PPA diagnosis had shown more changes associated with Alzheimer’s disease than FTD. 

 

Genetics 

 

Most cases of semantic PPA are not hereditary.

 

Treatment 

 

 The non-pharmacological approach is often the first therapeutic line in the middle stages of dementia. It is a holistic and exhaustive approach that incorporates the care of physical, behavioral, emotional, and social dimensions.

 

As the disease progresses, loss of function is inevitable. Treatment aims to maximize patient’s quality of life and assist their family members to succeed in their roles as primary caregivers. This may provoke a less negative perception of deterioration and a greater sense of quality of life. 

 

Individual sessions 

 

Different types of individual treatments for patients with Semantic Dementia (which have been detailed previously) include: 

 

  • Speech Therapy 
  • Cognitive Rehabilitation 
  • Occupational Therapy 
  • Music Therapy

 

Group sessions 

 

Different types of group treatments for patients with Semantic Dementia include:

 

  • Anomia Group: Particularly at the onset of the disease, this group aims to provide strategies for word recall throughout different activities. 
  • Music therapy Group
  • Reminiscence Group
  • Memory Group: The memory workshop or cognitive stimulation group is intended for the systematized exercise of functions such as attention, memory, planning, and constructive vision activities in an environment of social integration that encourages peer exchange.

 

One of the most important things in the treatment of patients with Semantic Dementia is to improve communication possibilities, either directly focusing on the language disorder, or by accompanying rehabilitation using alternative augmentative communication as a complement (using technological support, gestures, drawings, or pictograms). This can be valid for the 3 FTD variants, as well as for the onset of the disease.

 

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FTD: NONFLUENT PROGRESSIVE APHASIA

 

The temporal variant of frontotemporal dementia is characterized by progressive language difficulties. Non-fluent Progressive Aphasia (NFPA) is the least common form of Frontotemporal Dementia and affects the ability to speak fluently. Patients experience difficulties in communicating due to expression distortions characterized by slow and laborious speech and a tendency to mispronounce words. Some patients present a blurred discourse while others can articulate words with some errors that vary between substitutions, omissions, or exchange of fragments (i.e., «Sunsay» for «Sunday»). These mistakes can interfere with communication up to a point in which it turns unintelligible. 

In some cases, patients may also develop speech apraxia. A disorder that affects the process of movement that is responsible for executing speech articulation. Understanding the word meanings is generally preserved, however, patients with NFPA have problems in understanding phrases and conversations. Spelling and reading are often impaired even in the early stages of the disease. 

In addition, problem-solving, mental flexibility, and decision-making tend to be other possible difficulties in NFPA patients. 

 

Current research suggests that the fundamental loss in NFPA patients is the deterioration in the knowledge of the grammatical organization and production of language sounds.

 

Unlike other FTD subtypes, NFPA does not produce changes in behavior or personality until advanced stages. Most patients maintain self-care and interest in the external world. In some cases, patients even maintain their jobs for a few years after the onset of the disease.

 

Main Clinical Features 

 

  • The aphasia usually manifests as a hesitant and laborious speech. Despite this, understanding of speech remains preserved for a long time, but eventually, it is also lost.
  • Increased difficulty in producing speech due to weakness and incoordination.
  • Reading and writing skills may be preserved longer than speech, but eventually, they may also deteriorate. 
  • With the progression of the disease, patients can also develop mutism. 
  • During the late stages of the disease, it may also appear swallowing difficulties.
  • In late states, alterations common to other FTD subtypes, particularly extrapyramidal syndromes such as cortico- basal syndrome (CBS) and progressive supranuclear paralysis (PSP), may occur. 
  • Neuroimaging studies in this patient evidence loss of volume in left frontal and parietal areas in MRI and decreased neuronal activity and blood flow, especially in the left frontal lobe in functional images (i.e., PET or SPECT).

 

Main pathological characteristics 

 

The most frequent pathological findings in PPA are the accumulation of abnormal tau protein (FTLD-T). This tau protein abnormality differs from that seen in Alzheimer’s disease. 

 

Genetics

 

NFPA genetics can be sporadic, familiar, or hereditary. However, most of the cases are not inherited.

 

Treatment 

 

The non-pharmacological approach is often the first therapeutic line in the middle stages of dementia, with phonaudiological therapy being one of the most used in this disease. It includes a holistic and exhaustive approach that incorporates the care of the physical, behavioral, emotional, and social dimensions.

 

Individual Sessions 

 

Different types of individual treatments for patients with NFPA (that have been detailed previously) include: 

 

  • Speech Therapy
  • Cognitive Rehabilitation
  • Occupational Therapy 
  • Music Therapy

 

Group Sessions 

 

The different types of group treatments for patients with NFPA include:

 

  • PPA Group: This group work offers a healthy and content environment, encouraging communications and participation in social interactions, with the aim to train and enrich the conversational abilities of the patients.
  • Music Therapy Group
  • Dance Movement Therapy Group: Using movement dynamics, patients participate in space awareness tasks, stimulating both, attention and concentration, and improving affection and self-regulation. Communication skills and the ability to express emotions and thoughts in a group context are also worked out.
  • Combined sessions of Speech and Music Therapy: This is a joint approach of combined techniques of speech therapy and Music Therapy, to maximize the patient’s performance in linguistic tasks and to deploy its full potential by appealing to the beneficial effect of music on language. 

 

The important thing in the treatment for patients with PPA is to improve their communication possibilities, focusing directly on the language disorder or accompanying rehabilitation using alternative augmentative communication as a complement.

 

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FTD: LOGOPENIC VARIANT

 

Individuals with Logopenic Progressive Aphasia (LPA) may experience word retrieval and word-finding difficulties (anomia), which can lead to a slow speech rate. Despite these difficulties, they are still able to produce speech retaining articulation and prosody. They present difficulties in evocating both, spontaneous language and in naming tasks by visual confrontation. The understanding of isolated words and the repetition of simple words are preserved. Current research suggests that the fundamental loss in the logopenic PPA occurs in phonological short-term memory, which also contributes to the difficulty in repeating and understanding long and complex sentences.

 

Unlike other subtypes of FTD, LPA does not produce changes in behavior or personality until advanced stages of the disease. Patients maintain self-care and interest in the external world. In some cases, they also maintain their jobs.  

 

Main clinical characteristics 

 

  • In the logopenic PPA, the aphasia manifests as a problem in finding and recall of words. Despite this difficulty, patients retain the underlying meaning of the words.
  • Speech slowed with frequent pauses due to difficulty finding the right words; the mechanisms or motor skills needed to produce speech are not affected.
  • Alterations of repetition of phrases and sentences, but the repetition of simple and short words are respected. 
  • Reading and writing skills can remain preserved longer than speech but eventually deteriorate as well.
  • Over time, patients may have problems understanding complex and long-term verbal information due to alterations in working memory (auditory attention interval). 
  • With the progression of the disease finally develops mutism.
  • Swallowing difficulty may develop during later stages of the disease.

 

Neuroimaging studies showed loss of brain volume, blood flow, or neuronal activity in the left temporal and parietal lobes.

 

Main pathological characteristics 

 

Recent research indicates that logopenic PPA can be caused frequently by Alzheimer’s disease. 

 

Genetics 

 

Logopenic PPA can be sporadic, familiar, or hereditary. Most cases are not hereditary.

 

Treatment 

 

The non-pharmacological approach is often the first therapeutic line in the middle stages of dementia, with speech therapy being one of the most widely used. It functions as a multidisciplinary team among its members and interdisciplinary in its process. 

 

Individual sessions 

 

The different types of individual treatments for patients with Logopenic Aphasia include:

 

  • Speech Therapy
  • Cognitive Rehabilitation 
  • Occupational Therapy 
  • Music Therapy 

 

Group Sessions 

 

The different types of group treatments for patients with Logopenic Aphasia include:

 

  • Anomia group: this group, especially at the beginning of pathology, aims to provide through different activities and resources strategies that facilitate the evocation of words. 
  • Combined sessions of Speech and Music Therapy 
  • PPA Group: Group work aims to train and enrich patients’ conversational skills in a group containment setting to encourage communication and participation in social interactions. 
  • Dance Workshop Movement Therapy

 

The important thing in the treatment for patients with PPA is to improve their communication possibilities, focusing directly on the language disorder specifically or accompanying rehabilitation using alternative augmentative communication as a complement.

 

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