Autores: Gonzalez-Gadea ML, Chennu S, Bekinschtein TA, Rattazzi A, Beraudi A, Trippichio P, Moyano B, Soffita Y, Steinberg L, Adolfi F, Sigman M, Marino J, Manes F, Ibanez A.
J Neurophysiol 2015 Aug 26:jn.00543.2015 10.1152/jn.00543.2015.
Predictive coding has been proposed as a framework to understand neural processes in neuropsychiatric disorders. We used this approach to describe mechanisms responsible for attentional abnormalities in Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). We monitored brain dynamics of 59 children (8-15 years-old) who had ASD or ADHD or were control participants via high density-electroencephalography. We performed analysis at the scalp and source-space levels while participants listened to standard and deviant tone sequences. Through task instructions, we manipulated top-down expectation by presenting expected and unexpected deviant sequences. ASD children showed reduced superior frontal cortex (FC) responses to unexpected events but increased dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (PFC) activation to expected events. In contrast, ADHD children exhibited reduced cortical responses in superior FC to expected events but strong PFC activation to unexpected events. Moreover, neural abnormalities were associated with specific control mechanisms, namely inhibitory control in ASD and set-shifting in ADHD. Based on the predictive coding account, top-down expectation abnormalities could be attributed to a disproportionate reliance (precision) allocated to prior beliefs in ASD and to sensory input in ADHD.
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