Nueva Publicación: Predictive coding in Autism Spectrum Disorder and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

Autores: Gonzalez-Gadea ML, Chennu S, Bekinschtein TA, Rattazzi A, Beraudi A, Trippichio P, Moyano B, Soffita Y, Steinberg L, Adolfi F, Sigman M, Marino J, Manes F, Ibanez A.

J Neurophysiol 2015 Aug 26:jn.00543.2015 10.1152/jn.00543.2015.

Predictive coding has been proposed as a framework to understand neural processes in neuropsychiatric disorders. We used this approach to describe mechanisms responsible for attentional abnormalities in Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). We monitored brain dynamics of 59 children (8-15 years-old) who had ASD or ADHD or were control participants via high density-electroencephalography. We performed analysis at the scalp and source-space levels while participants listened to standard and deviant tone sequences. Through task instructions, we manipulated top-down expectation by presenting expected and unexpected deviant sequences. ASD children showed reduced superior frontal cortex (FC) responses to unexpected events but increased dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (PFC) activation to expected events. In contrast, ADHD children exhibited reduced cortical responses in superior FC to expected events but strong PFC activation to unexpected events. Moreover, neural abnormalities were associated with specific control mechanisms, namely inhibitory control in ASD and set-shifting in ADHD. Based on the predictive coding account, top-down expectation abnormalities could be attributed to a disproportionate reliance (precision) allocated to prior beliefs in ASD and to sensory input in ADHD.

 

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NUEVA PUBLICACIÓN: A REPORT ON OLDER-AGE BIPOLAR DISORDER FROM THE INTERNATIONAL SOCIETY OF BIPOLAR DISORDERS TASK FORCE

Sajatovic M, Strejilevich SA, Gildengers AG, Dols A, Al Jurdi RK, Forester BP, Kessing LV, Beyer J, Manes F, Rej S, Rosa AR, Schouws SN, Tsai SY, Young RC, Shulman KI. A REPORT ON OLDER-AGE BIPOLAR DISORDER FROM THE INTERNATIONAL SOCIETY OF BIPOLAR DISORDERS TASK FORCE. Bipolar Disord. 2015 Sep 19. doi: 10.1111/bdi.12331.
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Nueva Publicación: Role of brain infarcts in behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia: Clinicopathological characterization in the National Alzheimer's Coordinating Center database.

Autores: Torralva T, Sposato LA, Riccio PM, Gleichgerrcht E, Roca M, Toledo JB, Trojanowski JQ, Kukull WA, Manes F, Hachinski V.

Neurobiol Aging. 2015 Oct;36(10):2861-8. doi: 10.1016/j.neurobiolaging.2015.06.026. Epub 2015 Jul 3.

Diagnosing behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) in patients with prior history of stroke or with silent brain infarcts on neuroimaging studies can be challenging. Vascular changes in patients with bvFTD are not unusual, but bvFTD tends to be ruled out in the presence of cerebrovascular disease. We aimed to identify the clinical, cognitive, and risk factor profile of bvFTD with coexistent cerebrovascular disease (V-bvFTD). We compared demographic data, clinical diagnoses, vascular risk factors, functional status, and normalized neuropsychological z-scores between patients with V-bvFTD versus bvFTD without concomitant cerebrovascular disease (NV-bvFTD) from the National Alzheimer’s Coordinating Centre database. We included 391 neuropathologically-diagnosed cases of frontotemporal lobe degeneration. We excluded patients that were diagnosed with aphasic variants of frontotemporal dementia before death. Patients with V-bvFTD (n = 62) were older at the time of onset of cognitive decline (71.6 vs. 62.5 years, p < 0.001) and death (78.7 vs. 69.6, p < 0.001), more likely to be hypertensive (75.8% vs. 45.7%, p = 0.002) and to have a history of stroke (21.2% vs. 6.1%, p = 0.007) than those with NV-bvFTD (n = 329). V-bvFTD was often underdiagnosed, affected elderly patients, and had a similar cognitive profile as NV-bvFTD despite the presence of brain infarcts. In the whole cohort, we observed enhanced cognitive performance with increasing age quintiles despite larger proportions of cerebrovascular disease pathology, likely meaning that frontotemporal lobe degeneration-related primary neurodegeneration exerts a stronger impact on cognition than cerebrovascular disease. Coexisting cerebrovascular disease should not preclude the diagnosis of bvFTD.

 

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