The development of children’s preferences for equality and equity across 13 individualistic and collectivist cultures. Huppert E, Cowell JM, Cheng Y, Contreras-Ibáñez C, Gomez-Sicard N, Gonzalez-Gaeda LM, Huepe D, Ibanez A, Lee K, Mahasneh R, Malcolm-Smith S, Salas N, Selcuk B, Tungodden B, Wong A, Zhou X, Decety J. 2018

AUTORES Huppert E, Cowell JM, Cheng Y, Contreras-Ibáñez C, Gomez-Sicard N, Gonzalez-Gaeda LM, Huepe D, Ibanez A, Lee K, Mahasneh R, Malcolm-Smith S, Salas N, Selcuk B, Tungodden B, Wong A, Zhou X, Decety J.
AÑO 2018
JOURNAL Developmental Science
VOLUMEN September 12, 2018
ABSTRACT A concern for fairness is a fundamental and universal element of morality. To examine the extent to which cultural norms are integrated into fairness cognitions and influence social preferences regarding equality and equity, a large sample of children (N 2,163) aged 4–11 were tested in 13 diverse countries. Children participated in three versions of a third‐party, contextualized distributive justice game between two hypothetical recipients differing in terms of wealth, merit, and empathy. Social decision‐making in these games revealed universal age‐related shifts from equality‐based to equity‐based distribution motivations across cultures. However, differences in levels of individualism and collectivism between the 13 countries predicted the age and extent to which children favor equity in each condition. Children from the most individualistic cultures endorsed equitable distributions to a greater degree than children from more collectivist cultures when recipients differed in regards to wealth and merit. However, in an empathy context where recipients differed in injury, children from the most collectivist cultures exhibited greater preferences to distribute resource equitably compared to children from more individualistic cultures. Children from the more individualistic cultures also favored equitable distributions at an earlier age than children from more collectivist cultures overall. These results demonstrate aspects of both cross‐cultural similarity and divergence in the development of fairness preferences.
RESUMEN Se examinó la influencia cultural en la manera en que los niños comparten (juegos de justicia distributiva en términos de riqueza, mérito o empatía) en una muestra (N> 2,000, 4-11 años) de 13 países. Los niños exhibieron conducta de equidad similares en todas las culturas que dependen de la edad. Sin embargo, los niveles de individualismo versus colectivismo de cada cultura afectaron la edad en que los niños favorecieron las distribuciones equitativas. Estos resultados demuestran similitudes y divergencias interculturales en el desarrollo de las preferencias de equidad.

Brain oscillations, inhibition and social inappropriateness in frontotemporal degeneration. Ibáñez A. 2018

AUTOR Ibáñez A.
AÑO 2018
JOURNAL Brain
VOLUMEN September 12, 2018
ABSTRACT Changes in cortical oscillatory dynamics are associated with both disinhibition and social cognition impairments in frontotemporal dementia. Thus, brain oscillations indexing behavioural control would provide a neuropathological pathway tackling different sources of impaired control in bvFTD. Here, I propose a new agenda pointing to a potential general oscillatory mechanism of control underlying motor, behavioural and social inappropriateness in frontotemporal degeneration. Frontal oscillatory networks (in particular at beta band) may index a general mechanism of impaired control underlying multiple deficits in bvFTD. Thus, multiple impaired behaviors (contextual inappropriateness, social disinhibition, impulsive behavior) in bvFTD could be partially explained by a common underlying mechanism involved in behavioural inhibition and social cognition.
RESUMEN Un sello distintivo de la demencia frontotemporal (FTD) es la afectación de múltiples dominios cognitivos, incluidos los déficits en cognición social e inhibición (DCSI). Sin embargo, no existen a la fecha modelos disponibles que expliquen de forma integrada dichos déficits. Este trabajo propone un modelo neurocognitivo mediante oscilaciones cerebrales como vía neuropatológica común en la FTD para entender los DCSI.

Altered neural signatures of interoception in multiple sclerosis. Salamone PC, Esteves S, Sinay VJ, García-Cordero I, Abrevaya S, Couto B, Adolfi F, Martorell M, Petroni A, Yoris A, Torquati K, Alifano F, Legaz A, Cassará F, Bruno D, Kemp AH, Herrera E, García A.M., Ibáñez A, Sedeño L. 2018

AUTORES Salamone PC, Esteves S, Sinay VJ, García-Cordero I, Abrevaya S, Couto B, Adolfi F, Martorell M, Petroni A, Yoris A, Torquati K, Alifano F, Legaz A, Cassará F, Bruno D, Kemp AH, Herrera E, García A.M., Ibáñez A, Sedeño L.
AÑO 2018
JOURNAL Human Brain Mapp
VOLUMEN August 4, 2018
ABSTRACT Multiple sclerosis (MS) patients present several alterations related to sensing of bodily signals. However, no specific neurocognitive impairment has yet been proposed as a core deficit underlying such symptoms. We aimed to determine whether MS patients present changes in interoception-that is, the monitoring of autonomic bodily information-a process that might be related to various bodily dysfunctions. We performed two studies in 34 relapsing-remitting, early-stage MS patients and 46 controls matched for gender, age, and education. In Study 1, we evaluated the heartbeat-evoked potential (HEP), a cortical signature of interoception, via a 128-channel EEG system during a heartbeat detection task including an exteroceptive and an interoceptive condition. Then, we obtained whole-brain MRI recordings. In Study 2, participants underwent fMRI recordings during two resting-state conditions: mind wandering and interoception. In Study 1, controls exhibited greater HEP modulation during the interoceptive condition than the exteroceptive one, but no systematic differences between conditions emerged in MS patients. Patients presented atrophy in the left insula, the posterior part of the right insula, and the right anterior cingulate cortex, with abnormal associations between neurophysiological and neuroanatomical patterns. In Study 2, controls showed higher functional connectivity and degree for the interoceptive state compared with mind wandering; however, this pattern was absent in patients, who nonetheless presented greater connectivity and degree than controls during mind wandering. MS patients were characterized by atypical multimodal brain signatures of interoception. This finding opens a new agenda to examine the role of inner-signal monitoring in the body symptomatology of MS.
RESUMEN Este estudio muestra, por primera vez, que la esclerosis múltiple implica alteraciones en el procesamiento interoceptivo –a saber, el monitoreo automático de la información corporal. Nuestros resultados, basados en registros electrofisiológícos y de resonancia magnética estructural y funcional, sugieren que tales alteraciones podrían constituir un marcador crítico de las disfunciones de procesamiento corporal que presentan los pacientes. Nuestra perspectiva multidimensional abre una nueva agenda en la investigación de esta enfermedad.

Increased moral condemnation of accidental harm in institutionalized adolescents. Baez, S., Herrera, E., García, A. M., Huepe, D., Santamaría-García, H., & Ibáñez, A. 2018

 

AUTORES Baez, S., Herrera, E., García, A. M., Huepe, D., Santamaría-García, H., & Ibáñez, A.
AÑO 2018
JOURNAL Scientific Reports
VOLUMEN August 2, 2018
ABSTRACT Social deprivation, as faced by children in institutional rearing, involves socio-cognitive deficits that may persist into adolescence. In particular, two relevant domains which prove sensitive to pre-adult neurodevelopment are theory of mind (ToM) and moral judgment (a complex skill which partially depend upon ToM). However, no study has assessed moral evaluation in adolescents with a history of institutional care, let alone its relationship with ToM skills. The present study aims to bridge this gap, focusing on moral evaluation of harmful actions in institutionalized adolescents (IAs). Relative to adolescents raised with their biological families, IAs exhibited less willingness to exculpate protagonists for accidental harms, suggesting an under-reliance on information about a person’s (innocent) intentions. Moreover, such abnormalities in IAs were associated with ToM impairments. Taken together, our findings extend previous findings of delayed ToM under social deprivation, further showing that the development of moral cognition is also vulnerable to the impact of institutionalization. These results could pave the way for novel research on the role of institutional rearing in ToM and moral development during adolescence.
RESUMEN La deprivación social en adolescentes institucionalizados (AI) podría impactar en el neurodesarrollo de la teoría de la mente (ToM) y el juicio moral. Mostramos en este estudio que los AI (en comparación con controles) presentaron un patrón de cognición moral atípica (incremento de condena moral a acciones no intencionales), asociado a alteraciones de ToM. Nuestro estudio demuestra que el desarrollo de la cognición moral es vulnerable al impacto de la institucionalización.

Interocepción, conectividad functional y procesamiento afectivo en el Trastorno de Despersonalización-Desrealización. Sedeño, L., Couto, B., Melloni, M., Canales-Johnson, A., Yoris, A., Baez, S., Esteves, S., Velásquez, M., Singer, N., Muñoz, E., Barttfeld, P., Sigman, M., Kichic, R., Chialvo, D., Manes, F., Bekinschtein, T., García, A. M. & Ibáñez, A. 2018

 

AUTORES Sedeño, L., Couto, B., Melloni, M., Canales-Johnson, A., Yoris, A., Baez, S., Esteves, S., Velásquez, M., Singer, N., Muñoz, E., Barttfeld, P., Sigman, M., Kichic, R., Chialvo, D., Manes, F., Bekinschtein, T., García, A. M. & Ibáñez, A.
AÑO 2018
JOURNAL Acta Psiquiátrica y Psicológica de América Latina
VOLUMEN June, 2018
ABSTRACT Depersonalization-Derealization Disorder (DD) typically manifests as a disruption of body self-awareness. Interoception (namely, cognitive processing of body signals) has been extensively considered as a key processing for body self-awareness. Against this background, this study aimed to investigate whether there are systematic differences in interoception between a patient with DD and controls that might explain the disembodiment symptoms of this disease. To assess interoception, we utilized a heartbeat detection task and measures of functional connectivity derived from fMRI networks in interoceptive/exteroceptivo/mind-wandering states. Additionally, we evaluated empathic abilities to test the association between interoception and emotional experience. The patient evinced impaired performance in the heartbeat detection task, alongside lower global brain connectivity only in the interoceptive state. He also presented a particular pattern of impairments in affective empathy. To our knowledge, this is the first experimental study on the relationship between interoception and DD combining behavioral and neurobiological measures. Our results suggest that altered neural mechanisms and cognitive processes regarding body signaling might be engaged in DD phenomenology. Moreover, our study contributes experimental data to the comprehension of brain-body interactions and the emergence of self-awareness and emotional feelingses.
RESUMEN El Trastorno de Depersonalización-Desrealización (TDD) se manifiesta típicamente como una alteración de la conciencia del propio cuerpo. La interocepción, definida como el procesamiento cognitivo de las señales corporales, ha sido ampliamente considerada como un proceso clave para la conciencia del cuerpo. En consecuencia, el objetivo de este estudio fue investigar si existen diferencias sistemáticas en el procesamiento interoceptivo entre un paciente con TDD y un grupo control, que podrían explicar los síntomas en la conciencia corporal sufridos en esta enfermedad. Para evaluar la interocepción, se utilizó una tarea de detección de latidos junto con medidas de conectividad funcional, derivadas de redes en tres estados atencionales distintos: interoceptivo, exteroceptivo, y reposo propiamente dicho (mind-wandering en inglés). Además, se evaluaron las habilidades empáticas para investigar el vínculo entre interopcepción y la experiencia afectiva. El paciente con TDD presentó alteraciones, comparado con el grupo control, en la tarea de detección de latidos. Más aún, en relación a la conectividad funcional, se encontró una conectividad cerebral global menor en el paciente en relación al grupo control únicamente durante los estados interoceptivos. A su vez, el paciente presentó un patrón particular de déficits en la tarea de empatía. Nuestros resultados sugieren que alteraciones en mecanismos neuronales y procesos cognitivos asociados a la percepción de señales corporales estarían vinculados a la fenomenología del TDD.

Action Semantics at the Bottom of the Brain: Insights From Dysplastic Cerebellar Gangliocytoma. Cervetto S, Abrevaya S, Matorell M, Kozono G, Muñoz E, Ferrari J, Sedeño L, Ibáñez A & García AM. 2018

AUTORES Sabrina Cervetto, Sofía Abrevaya, Miguel Matorell, Giselle Kozono, Edinson Muñoz, Jesica Ferrari, Lucas Sedeño, Agustín Ibáñez & Adolfo García.
AÑO 2018
JOURNAL Frontiers in Psychology
VOLUMEN July 12, 2018
ABSTRACT Recent embodied cognition research shows that access to action verbs in shallow-processing tasks becomes selectively compromised upon atrophy of the cerebellum, a critical motor region. Here we assessed whether cerebellar damage also disturbs explicit semantic processing of action pictures and its integration with ongoing motor responses. We evaluated a cognitively preserved 33-year-old man with severe dysplastic cerebellar gangliocytoma (Lhermitte-Duclos disease), encompassing most of the right cerebellum and the posterior part of the left cerebellum. The patient and eight healthy controls completed two semantic association tasks (involving pictures of objects and actions, respectively) that required motor responses. Accuracy results via Crawford’s modified t-tests revealed that the patient was selectively impaired in action association. Moreover, reaction-time analysis through Crawford’s Revised Standardized Difference Test showed that, while processing of action concepts involved slower manual responses in controls, no such effect was observed in the patient, suggesting that motor-semantic integration dynamics may be compromised following cerebellar damage. Notably, a Bayesian Test for a Deficit allowing for Covariates revealed that these patterns remained after covarying for executive performance, indicating that they were not secondary to extra-linguistic impairments. Taken together, our results extend incipient findings on the embodied functions of the cerebellum, offering unprecedented evidence of its crucial role in processing non-verbal action meanings and integrating them with concomitant movements. These findings illuminate the relatively unexplored semantic functions of this region while calling for extensions of motor cognition models.
RESUMEN En este estudio investigamos el procesamiento de la semántica de la acción (conceptos que aluden a movimientos corporales) en un paciente con gangliocitoma displásico cerebeloso. En comparación con controles sanos, el paciente manifestó déficits selectivos para asociar conceptos de acción e integrarlos con sus propios movimientos corporales. Considerando la especificidad de su afección cerebral, estos resultados indican que el cerebelo (una región clave para el procesamiento motor) cumple un papel distintivo en este campo semántico. Dicho hallazgo permite entender modelos teóricos dominantes en el marco de la cognición corporeizada.

Validity and reliability of the kiddie schedule for affective disorders and schizophrenia present and lifetime version DSM-5 (K-SADS-PL-5). Francisco R. de la Peña, Lino R. Villavicencio, Juan D. Palacio, Fernando J. Félix, Marcela Larraguibel, Laura Viola, Silvia Ortiz, Marcos Rosetti, Andrea Abadi, Cecilia Montiel, Pablo A. Mayer, Sofía Fernández, Aurora Jaimes, Miriam Feria, Liz Sosa, Andrés Rodríguez, Patricia Zavaleta, Daniela Uribe, Frinne Galicia, Diana Botero, Santiago Estrada, Arturo F. Berber, Macarena Pi-Davanzo, Consuelo Aldunate, Gabriela Gómez, Ivannah Campodónico, Paula Tripicchio, Ignacio Gath, Manuel Hernández, Lino Palacios and Rosa E. Ulloa. 2018

AUTORES Francisco R. de la Peña, Lino R. Villavicencio, Juan D. Palacio, Fernando J. Félix, Marcela Larraguibel, Laura Viola, Silvia Ortiz, Marcos Rosetti, Andrea Abadi, Cecilia Montiel, Pablo A. Mayer, Sofía Fernández, Aurora Jaimes, Miriam Feria, Liz Sosa, Andrés Rodríguez, Patricia Zavaleta, Daniela Uribe, Frinne Galicia, Diana Botero, Santiago Estrada, Arturo F. Berber, Macarena Pi-Davanzo, Consuelo Aldunate, Gabriela Gómez, Ivannah Campodónico, Paula Tripicchio, Ignacio Gath, Manuel Hernández, Lino Palacios and Rosa E. Ulloa.
AÑO 2018
JOURNAL BMC Psychiatry
VOLUMEN June 14, 2018
ABSTRACT There are various language adaptations of the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School Age Children Present and Lifetime Version (K-SADS-PL). In order to comply with the changes in DSM classification, the Spanish edition of the interview was in need of update and evaluation.
RESUMEN K-DSADS-PL5 es una entrevista clínica esencial para la investigación psiquiátrica en Niños y Adolescentes. Con el fin de adecuarla al manual Diagnóstico DSM-5, se realizó un estudio Latinoamericano de validación y replicación en su versión al idioma español. Expertos de México, Panamá, Venezuela, Colombia, Chile y Uruguay han integrado el grupo de países participantes. Los profesionales que figuramos en copia representamos Argentina.
Los resultados obtenidos sugieren una buena validez de constructo y validez inter-evaluador, lo que lo convierte en una herramienta útil para estudios de investigación clínica en población InfantoJuvenil.

Molecular Mechanisms in Perirhinal Cortex Selectively Necessary for Discrimination of Overlapping Memories, but Independent of Memory Persistence. Miranda M, Kent BA, Morici JF, Gallo F, Weisstaub NV, Saksida LM, Bussey TJ, Bekinschtein B. 2017

AUTORES Miranda M, Kent BA, Morici JF, Gallo F, Weisstaub NV, Saksida LM, Bussey TJ, Bekinschtein B.
AÑO 2017
JOURNAL eNeuro
VOLUMEN October, 2017
ABSTRACT Successful memory involves not only remembering over time but also keeping memories distinct. The ability to separate similar experiences into distinct memories is a main feature of episodic memory. Discrimination of overlapping representations has been investigated in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus (DG), but little is known about this process in other regions such as the perirhinal cortex (Prh). We found in male rats that perirhinal brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is required for separable storage of overlapping, but not distinct, object representations, which is identical to its role in the DG for spatial representations. Also, activity-regulated cytoskeletal-associated protein (Arc) is required for disambiguation of object memories, as measured by infusion of antisense oligonucleotides. This is the first time Arc has been implicated in the discrimination of objects with overlapping features. Although molecular mechanisms for object memory have been shown previously in Prh, these have been dependent on delay, suggesting a role specifically in memory duration. BDNF and Arc involvement were independent of delay-the same demand for memory persistence was present in all conditions-but only when discrimination of similar objects was required were these mechanisms recruited and necessary. Finally, we show that BDNF and Arc participate in the same pathway during consolidation of overlapping object memories. We provide novel evidence regarding the proteins involved in disambiguation of object memories outside the DG and suggest that, despite the anatomical differences, similar mechanisms underlie this process in the DG and Prh that are engaged depending on the similarity of the stimuli.
RESUMEN Muchas veces se asocia la pérdida de memoria con la imposibilidad de recordar items luego de un intervalo de tiempo. No obstante, la amnesia puede ocurrir porque dos experiencias o ítems fueron similares y al momento de recordarlos, se confunden. El cerebro posee mecanismos para transformar la información proveniente de experiencias similares en memorias diferenciadas que sean menos confundibles al momento de evocarlas. En este trabajo demostramos que los mecanismos moleculares involucrados en el almacenamiento de experiencias similares como memorias diferentes son similares en el dominio espacial y en el de objetos. Estos mecanismos involucran la acción del factor neurotrófico derivado de cerebro (BDNF) tanto en el hipocampo como en la corteza perirrinal, necesarios para el almacenamiento de información espacial y de objetos respectivamente. A pesar de ser dos estructuras anatómicamente muy diferentes, los mecanismos moleculares necesarios para el procesamiento de este tipo de memorias es similar.

Immediate Early Genes, Memory and Psychiatric Disorders: Focus on c-Fos, Egr1 and Arc. Francisco T Gallo, Cynthia Katche, Facundo Morici, Jorge H Medina, Noelia V Weisstaub. 2018

AUTORES Francisco T Gallo, Cynthia Katche, Facundo Morici, Jorge H Medina, Noelia V Weisstaub.
AÑO 2018
JOURNAL Frontiers 
VOLUMEN April 25, 2018
ABSTRACT Many psychiatric disorders, despite their specific characteristics, share deficits in the cognitive domain including executive functions, emotional control and memory. However, memory deficits have been in many cases undervalued compared with other characteristics. The expression of Immediate Early Genes (IEGs) such as, c-fos, Egr1 and arc are selectively and promptly upregulated in learning and memory among neuronal subpopulations in regions associated with these processes. Changes in expression in these genes have been observed in recognition, working and fear related memories across the brain. Despite the enormous amount of data supporting changes in their expression during learning and memory and the importance of those cognitive processes in psychiatric conditions, there are very few studies analyzing the direct implication of the IEGs in mental illnesses. In this review, we discuss the role of some of the most relevant IEGs in relation with memory processes affected in psychiatric conditions.
RESUMEN Mas allá de las diferencias existentes en distintos desordenes psiquiátricos, varios de ellos comparten deficits en el dominio cognitivo, incluyendo deficits de memoria. La expresión de genes como c-Fos, Egr1 y Aarc son selectivamente regulados en procesos de aprendizaje y memoria en regiones y poblaciones neuronales especificas. En esta revision discutimos el rol de algunos de los genes tempranos mas importantes en relación con procesos de memoria afectados en desordenes psiquiátricos.

5-HT2a receptor in mPFC influences context-guided reconsolidation of object memory in perirhinal cortex. Juan Facundo Morici, Magdalena Miranda, Francisco Tomás Gallo, Belén Zanoni, Pedro Bekinschtein, Noelia V. Weisstaub. 2018

AUTORES Juan Facundo Morici, Magdalena Miranda, Francisco Tomás Gallo, Belén Zanoni, Pedro Bekinschtein, Noelia V. Weisstaub.
AÑO 2018
JOURNAL eLife
VOLUMEN May 2, 2018
ABSTRACT Context-dependent memories may guide adaptive behavior relaying in previous experience while updating stored information through reconsolidation. Retrieval can be triggered by partial and shared cues. When the cue is presented, the most relevant memory should be updated. In a contextual version of the object recognition task, we examined the effect of medial PFC (mPFC) serotonin 2a receptor (5-HT2aR) blockade during retrieval in reconsolidation of competing objects memories. We found that mPFC 5-HT2aR controls retrieval and reconsolidation of object memories in the perirhinal cortex (PRH), but not in the dorsal hippocampus in rats. Also, reconsolidation of objects memories in PRH required a functional interaction between the ventral hippocampus and the mPFC. Our results indicate that in the presence of conflicting information at retrieval, mPFC 5-HT2aR may facilitate top-down context-guided control over PRH to control the behavioral response and object memory reconsolidation.
RESUMEN Las memorias dependientes de contexto pueden guiar las conductas apoyándose en experiencias pasadas mientras se actualiza la información guardada previamente a través del proceso de reconsolidación. La evocación puede darse por la presentación de calves que son comunes a distintas memorias, en esos casos, la memoria mas relevante debe ser la que sufre el proceso de actualización. En este estudio evaluamos el efecto que el bloqueo del receptor serotoninérgico 5-HT2a en la corteza pre frontal de ratas tiene sobre la reconsolidación de memorias de objetos que compiten al momento de la evocación.