An Initial Study of Alexithymia and Its Relationship With Cognitive Abilities Among Mild Cognitive Impairment, Mild Alzheimer’s Disease, and Healthy Volunteers. Smirni, D.; Beadle, J.N.; Paradiso, S. 2018

AUTORES Smirni, D.; Beadle, J.N.; Paradiso, S.
AÑO 2018
JOURNAL The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
VOLUMEN August, 2018
ABSTRACT The present study examined the degree to which alexithymia is greater in mild Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) relative to healthy volunteers (healthy comparison [HC]), and investigated relationships between alexithymia and cognition. Eighty-five participants (MCI = 30, AD = 21, HC = 34) underwent a comprehensive neuropsychological examination and completed the 20-item Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20). Relative to HC, MCI and AD reported greater alexithymia total scores and higher scores on the TAS factor difficulty in identifying feelings (DIF). The remaining two factors, difficulty in describing feelings (DDF) and externally oriented thinking showed no significant group differences. In MCI, TAS-20 and DIF were negatively correlated with working and long-term verbal memory. In AD, TAS-20 was negatively correlated with general cognition, attention, memory, and visual spatial constructive and executive abilities. Also in AD, DIF was negatively correlated with general cognition, memory, and executive abilities. The correlation between DIF and long-term verbal memory in both MCI and AD suggests a potential common mechanism for alexithymia in these neurocognitive disorders. Declines in verbal memory may hinder a patient’s ability to recall an association between a given sensation and the episodic experience of that sensation, thus leading to difficulty identifying feelings, as measured by the DIF factor of the TAS-20.
RESUMEN El presente estudio examinó el grado en que la alexitimia es mayor en la enfermedad de Alzheimer leve (AD) y el deterioro cognitivo leve (MCI) versus sujetos control sanos. A su vez se analizó la relación entre la alexitimia y funciones cognitivas. Para ello, ochenta y cinco participantes se sometieron a un examen neuropsicológico y completaron la Escala de alexitimia de Toronto (TAS-20). En relación con sujetos sanos, MCI y AD informaron mayores puntuaciones totales de alexitimia y puntuaciones más altas en la dificultad para identificar sentimientos. La correlación entre la a dificultad para identificar sentimientos y la memoria verbal a largo plazo tanto en MCI como en AD sugiere un posible mecanismo común para la alexitimia en estos trastornos neurocognitivos. La disminución en la memoria verbal puede dificultar la capacidad del paciente para recordar una asociación entre una sensación determinada y la experiencia episódica de dicha sensación, lo que lleva a una dificultad para identificar los sentimientos.

Core Semantic Links or Lexical Associations: Assessing the Nature of Responses in Word Association Tasks. Vivas L, Manoiloff L, García AM, Lizarralde F, Vivas J. 2018

AUTORES Vivas L, Manoiloff L, García AM, Lizarralde F, Vivas J.
AÑO 2018
JOURNAL Journal of Psycholinguistic Research
VOLUMEN September 17, 2018
ABSTRACT The processes tapped by the widely-used word association (WA) paradigm remain a matter of debate: while some authors consider them as driven by lexical co-occurrences, others emphasize the role of meaning-based connections. To test these contrastive hypotheses, we analyzed responses in a WA task in terms of their normative defining features (those describing the object denoted by the cue word). Results indicate that 72.5% of the responses had medium-to-high coincidence with such defining semantic features. Moreover, 75.51% of responses had medium-to-high values of Relevance (a measure of the importance of the feature for construing a given concept). Furthermore, most responses (62.7%) referred to elements of the situation in which the concept usually appears, followed by sensory properties (e.g., color) of the denoted object (27.86%). These results suggest that the processes behind WA tasks involve a reactivation of the cue item’s semantic properties, particularly those most relevant to its core meaning.
RESUMEN En este estudio investigamos la naturaleza de las respuestas obtenidas mediante el paradigma de asociación de palabras, en el cual los participantes deben producir el primer vocablo que les viene a la mente al presentársele otro como estímulo. Nuestros resultados muestran que la vasta mayoría de las respuestas se corresponden con atributos semánticos definitorios de la palabra estímulo, sobre todo aquellos con alta relevancia para concebir el concepto en cuestión. Así, parece que la asociación de palabras depende más de conexiones a nivel semántico que de lazos a nivel de la forma léxica.

Cardiac Interoception in Neurological Conditions and its Relevance for Dimensional Approaches. Yoris A, Garcia AM, Salamone P, Sedeno L, Garcia-Cordero I, Ibanez A. 2018

AUTORES Yoris A, Garcia AM, Salamone P, Sedeno L, Garcia-Cordero I, Ibanez A.
AÑO 2018
JOURNAL Oxford University Press
VOLUMEN September 15, 2018
ABSTRACT Dimensional and transdiagnostic approaches have revealed multiple cognitive/emotional alterations shared by several neuropsychiatric conditions. While this has been shown for externally triggered neurocognitive processes, the disruption of interoception across neurological disorders remains poorly understood. This chapter aims to fill this gap while proposing cardiac interoception as a potential common biomarker across disorders. It focuses on key aspects of interoception, such as the mechanisms underlying different interoceptive dimensions; the relationship among interoception, emotion, and social cognition; and the roles of different interoceptive pathways. It considers behavioral and brain evidence in the context of an experimental and clinical agenda to evaluate the potential role of interoception as a predictor of clinical outcomes, a marker of neurocognitive deficits across diseases, and a general source of insights for breakthroughs in the treatment and prevention of multiple disorders. Finally, future directions to improve the dimensional and transdiagnostic assessment of interoception are outlined.
RESUMEN En este capítulo editado por Oxford University Press, proponemos un enfoque dimensional y transdiagnóstico para el estudio de la intercepción (la percepción de las señales corporales) a lo largo de múltiples trastornos neurológicos, centrándonos en las diferentes dimensiones interoceptivas; la relación entre la interocepción- emoción-cognición social; y sus correlatos cerebrales.

The development of children’s preferences for equality and equity across 13 individualistic and collectivist cultures. Huppert E, Cowell JM, Cheng Y, Contreras-Ibáñez C, Gomez-Sicard N, Gonzalez-Gaeda LM, Huepe D, Ibanez A, Lee K, Mahasneh R, Malcolm-Smith S, Salas N, Selcuk B, Tungodden B, Wong A, Zhou X, Decety J. 2018

AUTORES Huppert E, Cowell JM, Cheng Y, Contreras-Ibáñez C, Gomez-Sicard N, Gonzalez-Gaeda LM, Huepe D, Ibanez A, Lee K, Mahasneh R, Malcolm-Smith S, Salas N, Selcuk B, Tungodden B, Wong A, Zhou X, Decety J.
AÑO 2018
JOURNAL Developmental Science
VOLUMEN September 12, 2018
ABSTRACT A concern for fairness is a fundamental and universal element of morality. To examine the extent to which cultural norms are integrated into fairness cognitions and influence social preferences regarding equality and equity, a large sample of children (N 2,163) aged 4–11 were tested in 13 diverse countries. Children participated in three versions of a third‐party, contextualized distributive justice game between two hypothetical recipients differing in terms of wealth, merit, and empathy. Social decision‐making in these games revealed universal age‐related shifts from equality‐based to equity‐based distribution motivations across cultures. However, differences in levels of individualism and collectivism between the 13 countries predicted the age and extent to which children favor equity in each condition. Children from the most individualistic cultures endorsed equitable distributions to a greater degree than children from more collectivist cultures when recipients differed in regards to wealth and merit. However, in an empathy context where recipients differed in injury, children from the most collectivist cultures exhibited greater preferences to distribute resource equitably compared to children from more individualistic cultures. Children from the more individualistic cultures also favored equitable distributions at an earlier age than children from more collectivist cultures overall. These results demonstrate aspects of both cross‐cultural similarity and divergence in the development of fairness preferences.
RESUMEN Se examinó la influencia cultural en la manera en que los niños comparten (juegos de justicia distributiva en términos de riqueza, mérito o empatía) en una muestra (N> 2,000, 4-11 años) de 13 países. Los niños exhibieron conducta de equidad similares en todas las culturas que dependen de la edad. Sin embargo, los niveles de individualismo versus colectivismo de cada cultura afectaron la edad en que los niños favorecieron las distribuciones equitativas. Estos resultados demuestran similitudes y divergencias interculturales en el desarrollo de las preferencias de equidad.

Brain oscillations, inhibition and social inappropriateness in frontotemporal degeneration. Ibáñez A. 2018

AUTOR Ibáñez A.
AÑO 2018
JOURNAL Brain
VOLUMEN September 12, 2018
ABSTRACT Changes in cortical oscillatory dynamics are associated with both disinhibition and social cognition impairments in frontotemporal dementia. Thus, brain oscillations indexing behavioural control would provide a neuropathological pathway tackling different sources of impaired control in bvFTD. Here, I propose a new agenda pointing to a potential general oscillatory mechanism of control underlying motor, behavioural and social inappropriateness in frontotemporal degeneration. Frontal oscillatory networks (in particular at beta band) may index a general mechanism of impaired control underlying multiple deficits in bvFTD. Thus, multiple impaired behaviors (contextual inappropriateness, social disinhibition, impulsive behavior) in bvFTD could be partially explained by a common underlying mechanism involved in behavioural inhibition and social cognition.
RESUMEN Un sello distintivo de la demencia frontotemporal (FTD) es la afectación de múltiples dominios cognitivos, incluidos los déficits en cognición social e inhibición (DCSI). Sin embargo, no existen a la fecha modelos disponibles que expliquen de forma integrada dichos déficits. Este trabajo propone un modelo neurocognitivo mediante oscilaciones cerebrales como vía neuropatológica común en la FTD para entender los DCSI.

Altered neural signatures of interoception in multiple sclerosis. Salamone PC, Esteves S, Sinay VJ, García-Cordero I, Abrevaya S, Couto B, Adolfi F, Martorell M, Petroni A, Yoris A, Torquati K, Alifano F, Legaz A, Cassará F, Bruno D, Kemp AH, Herrera E, García A.M., Ibáñez A, Sedeño L. 2018

AUTORES Salamone PC, Esteves S, Sinay VJ, García-Cordero I, Abrevaya S, Couto B, Adolfi F, Martorell M, Petroni A, Yoris A, Torquati K, Alifano F, Legaz A, Cassará F, Bruno D, Kemp AH, Herrera E, García A.M., Ibáñez A, Sedeño L.
AÑO 2018
JOURNAL Human Brain Mapp
VOLUMEN August 4, 2018
ABSTRACT Multiple sclerosis (MS) patients present several alterations related to sensing of bodily signals. However, no specific neurocognitive impairment has yet been proposed as a core deficit underlying such symptoms. We aimed to determine whether MS patients present changes in interoception-that is, the monitoring of autonomic bodily information-a process that might be related to various bodily dysfunctions. We performed two studies in 34 relapsing-remitting, early-stage MS patients and 46 controls matched for gender, age, and education. In Study 1, we evaluated the heartbeat-evoked potential (HEP), a cortical signature of interoception, via a 128-channel EEG system during a heartbeat detection task including an exteroceptive and an interoceptive condition. Then, we obtained whole-brain MRI recordings. In Study 2, participants underwent fMRI recordings during two resting-state conditions: mind wandering and interoception. In Study 1, controls exhibited greater HEP modulation during the interoceptive condition than the exteroceptive one, but no systematic differences between conditions emerged in MS patients. Patients presented atrophy in the left insula, the posterior part of the right insula, and the right anterior cingulate cortex, with abnormal associations between neurophysiological and neuroanatomical patterns. In Study 2, controls showed higher functional connectivity and degree for the interoceptive state compared with mind wandering; however, this pattern was absent in patients, who nonetheless presented greater connectivity and degree than controls during mind wandering. MS patients were characterized by atypical multimodal brain signatures of interoception. This finding opens a new agenda to examine the role of inner-signal monitoring in the body symptomatology of MS.
RESUMEN Este estudio muestra, por primera vez, que la esclerosis múltiple implica alteraciones en el procesamiento interoceptivo –a saber, el monitoreo automático de la información corporal. Nuestros resultados, basados en registros electrofisiológícos y de resonancia magnética estructural y funcional, sugieren que tales alteraciones podrían constituir un marcador crítico de las disfunciones de procesamiento corporal que presentan los pacientes. Nuestra perspectiva multidimensional abre una nueva agenda en la investigación de esta enfermedad.

Increased moral condemnation of accidental harm in institutionalized adolescents. Baez, S., Herrera, E., García, A. M., Huepe, D., Santamaría-García, H., & Ibáñez, A. 2018

 

AUTORES Baez, S., Herrera, E., García, A. M., Huepe, D., Santamaría-García, H., & Ibáñez, A.
AÑO 2018
JOURNAL Scientific Reports
VOLUMEN August 2, 2018
ABSTRACT Social deprivation, as faced by children in institutional rearing, involves socio-cognitive deficits that may persist into adolescence. In particular, two relevant domains which prove sensitive to pre-adult neurodevelopment are theory of mind (ToM) and moral judgment (a complex skill which partially depend upon ToM). However, no study has assessed moral evaluation in adolescents with a history of institutional care, let alone its relationship with ToM skills. The present study aims to bridge this gap, focusing on moral evaluation of harmful actions in institutionalized adolescents (IAs). Relative to adolescents raised with their biological families, IAs exhibited less willingness to exculpate protagonists for accidental harms, suggesting an under-reliance on information about a person’s (innocent) intentions. Moreover, such abnormalities in IAs were associated with ToM impairments. Taken together, our findings extend previous findings of delayed ToM under social deprivation, further showing that the development of moral cognition is also vulnerable to the impact of institutionalization. These results could pave the way for novel research on the role of institutional rearing in ToM and moral development during adolescence.
RESUMEN La deprivación social en adolescentes institucionalizados (AI) podría impactar en el neurodesarrollo de la teoría de la mente (ToM) y el juicio moral. Mostramos en este estudio que los AI (en comparación con controles) presentaron un patrón de cognición moral atípica (incremento de condena moral a acciones no intencionales), asociado a alteraciones de ToM. Nuestro estudio demuestra que el desarrollo de la cognición moral es vulnerable al impacto de la institucionalización.

Interocepción, conectividad functional y procesamiento afectivo en el Trastorno de Despersonalización-Desrealización. Sedeño, L., Couto, B., Melloni, M., Canales-Johnson, A., Yoris, A., Baez, S., Esteves, S., Velásquez, M., Singer, N., Muñoz, E., Barttfeld, P., Sigman, M., Kichic, R., Chialvo, D., Manes, F., Bekinschtein, T., García, A. M. & Ibáñez, A. 2018

 

AUTORES Sedeño, L., Couto, B., Melloni, M., Canales-Johnson, A., Yoris, A., Baez, S., Esteves, S., Velásquez, M., Singer, N., Muñoz, E., Barttfeld, P., Sigman, M., Kichic, R., Chialvo, D., Manes, F., Bekinschtein, T., García, A. M. & Ibáñez, A.
AÑO 2018
JOURNAL Acta Psiquiátrica y Psicológica de América Latina
VOLUMEN June, 2018
ABSTRACT Depersonalization-Derealization Disorder (DD) typically manifests as a disruption of body self-awareness. Interoception (namely, cognitive processing of body signals) has been extensively considered as a key processing for body self-awareness. Against this background, this study aimed to investigate whether there are systematic differences in interoception between a patient with DD and controls that might explain the disembodiment symptoms of this disease. To assess interoception, we utilized a heartbeat detection task and measures of functional connectivity derived from fMRI networks in interoceptive/exteroceptivo/mind-wandering states. Additionally, we evaluated empathic abilities to test the association between interoception and emotional experience. The patient evinced impaired performance in the heartbeat detection task, alongside lower global brain connectivity only in the interoceptive state. He also presented a particular pattern of impairments in affective empathy. To our knowledge, this is the first experimental study on the relationship between interoception and DD combining behavioral and neurobiological measures. Our results suggest that altered neural mechanisms and cognitive processes regarding body signaling might be engaged in DD phenomenology. Moreover, our study contributes experimental data to the comprehension of brain-body interactions and the emergence of self-awareness and emotional feelingses.
RESUMEN El Trastorno de Depersonalización-Desrealización (TDD) se manifiesta típicamente como una alteración de la conciencia del propio cuerpo. La interocepción, definida como el procesamiento cognitivo de las señales corporales, ha sido ampliamente considerada como un proceso clave para la conciencia del cuerpo. En consecuencia, el objetivo de este estudio fue investigar si existen diferencias sistemáticas en el procesamiento interoceptivo entre un paciente con TDD y un grupo control, que podrían explicar los síntomas en la conciencia corporal sufridos en esta enfermedad. Para evaluar la interocepción, se utilizó una tarea de detección de latidos junto con medidas de conectividad funcional, derivadas de redes en tres estados atencionales distintos: interoceptivo, exteroceptivo, y reposo propiamente dicho (mind-wandering en inglés). Además, se evaluaron las habilidades empáticas para investigar el vínculo entre interopcepción y la experiencia afectiva. El paciente con TDD presentó alteraciones, comparado con el grupo control, en la tarea de detección de latidos. Más aún, en relación a la conectividad funcional, se encontró una conectividad cerebral global menor en el paciente en relación al grupo control únicamente durante los estados interoceptivos. A su vez, el paciente presentó un patrón particular de déficits en la tarea de empatía. Nuestros resultados sugieren que alteraciones en mecanismos neuronales y procesos cognitivos asociados a la percepción de señales corporales estarían vinculados a la fenomenología del TDD.

Action Semantics at the Bottom of the Brain: Insights From Dysplastic Cerebellar Gangliocytoma. Cervetto S, Abrevaya S, Matorell M, Kozono G, Muñoz E, Ferrari J, Sedeño L, Ibáñez A & García AM. 2018

AUTORES Sabrina Cervetto, Sofía Abrevaya, Miguel Matorell, Giselle Kozono, Edinson Muñoz, Jesica Ferrari, Lucas Sedeño, Agustín Ibáñez & Adolfo García.
AÑO 2018
JOURNAL Frontiers in Psychology
VOLUMEN July 12, 2018
ABSTRACT Recent embodied cognition research shows that access to action verbs in shallow-processing tasks becomes selectively compromised upon atrophy of the cerebellum, a critical motor region. Here we assessed whether cerebellar damage also disturbs explicit semantic processing of action pictures and its integration with ongoing motor responses. We evaluated a cognitively preserved 33-year-old man with severe dysplastic cerebellar gangliocytoma (Lhermitte-Duclos disease), encompassing most of the right cerebellum and the posterior part of the left cerebellum. The patient and eight healthy controls completed two semantic association tasks (involving pictures of objects and actions, respectively) that required motor responses. Accuracy results via Crawford’s modified t-tests revealed that the patient was selectively impaired in action association. Moreover, reaction-time analysis through Crawford’s Revised Standardized Difference Test showed that, while processing of action concepts involved slower manual responses in controls, no such effect was observed in the patient, suggesting that motor-semantic integration dynamics may be compromised following cerebellar damage. Notably, a Bayesian Test for a Deficit allowing for Covariates revealed that these patterns remained after covarying for executive performance, indicating that they were not secondary to extra-linguistic impairments. Taken together, our results extend incipient findings on the embodied functions of the cerebellum, offering unprecedented evidence of its crucial role in processing non-verbal action meanings and integrating them with concomitant movements. These findings illuminate the relatively unexplored semantic functions of this region while calling for extensions of motor cognition models.
RESUMEN En este estudio investigamos el procesamiento de la semántica de la acción (conceptos que aluden a movimientos corporales) en un paciente con gangliocitoma displásico cerebeloso. En comparación con controles sanos, el paciente manifestó déficits selectivos para asociar conceptos de acción e integrarlos con sus propios movimientos corporales. Considerando la especificidad de su afección cerebral, estos resultados indican que el cerebelo (una región clave para el procesamiento motor) cumple un papel distintivo en este campo semántico. Dicho hallazgo permite entender modelos teóricos dominantes en el marco de la cognición corporeizada.

Validity and reliability of the kiddie schedule for affective disorders and schizophrenia present and lifetime version DSM-5 (K-SADS-PL-5). Francisco R. de la Peña, Lino R. Villavicencio, Juan D. Palacio, Fernando J. Félix, Marcela Larraguibel, Laura Viola, Silvia Ortiz, Marcos Rosetti, Andrea Abadi, Cecilia Montiel, Pablo A. Mayer, Sofía Fernández, Aurora Jaimes, Miriam Feria, Liz Sosa, Andrés Rodríguez, Patricia Zavaleta, Daniela Uribe, Frinne Galicia, Diana Botero, Santiago Estrada, Arturo F. Berber, Macarena Pi-Davanzo, Consuelo Aldunate, Gabriela Gómez, Ivannah Campodónico, Paula Tripicchio, Ignacio Gath, Manuel Hernández, Lino Palacios and Rosa E. Ulloa. 2018

AUTORES Francisco R. de la Peña, Lino R. Villavicencio, Juan D. Palacio, Fernando J. Félix, Marcela Larraguibel, Laura Viola, Silvia Ortiz, Marcos Rosetti, Andrea Abadi, Cecilia Montiel, Pablo A. Mayer, Sofía Fernández, Aurora Jaimes, Miriam Feria, Liz Sosa, Andrés Rodríguez, Patricia Zavaleta, Daniela Uribe, Frinne Galicia, Diana Botero, Santiago Estrada, Arturo F. Berber, Macarena Pi-Davanzo, Consuelo Aldunate, Gabriela Gómez, Ivannah Campodónico, Paula Tripicchio, Ignacio Gath, Manuel Hernández, Lino Palacios and Rosa E. Ulloa.
AÑO 2018
JOURNAL BMC Psychiatry
VOLUMEN June 14, 2018
ABSTRACT There are various language adaptations of the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School Age Children Present and Lifetime Version (K-SADS-PL). In order to comply with the changes in DSM classification, the Spanish edition of the interview was in need of update and evaluation.
RESUMEN K-DSADS-PL5 es una entrevista clínica esencial para la investigación psiquiátrica en Niños y Adolescentes. Con el fin de adecuarla al manual Diagnóstico DSM-5, se realizó un estudio Latinoamericano de validación y replicación en su versión al idioma español. Expertos de México, Panamá, Venezuela, Colombia, Chile y Uruguay han integrado el grupo de países participantes. Los profesionales que figuramos en copia representamos Argentina.
Los resultados obtenidos sugieren una buena validez de constructo y validez inter-evaluador, lo que lo convierte en una herramienta útil para estudios de investigación clínica en población InfantoJuvenil.