González-Gadea ML, Báez S, Torralva T, Castellanos FX, Rattazzi A, Bein V, Rogg K, Manes F, Ibanez A.  Cognitive variability in adults with ADHD and AS: Disentangling the roles of executive functions and social cognition. Research in Developmental Disabilities 2012

Cognitive variability in adults with ADHD and AS: Disentangling the roles of executive functions and social cognition.

Autores González-Gadea ML, Báez S, Torralva T, Castellanos FX, Rattazzi A, Bein V, Rogg K, Manes F, Ibanez A. 
Año 2012
Journal  González-Gadea ML, Báez S, Torralva T, Castellanos FX, Rattazzi A, Bein V, Rogg K, Manes F, Ibanez A. 
Volumen 6: 817-830
Abstract  Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and Asperger’s Syndrome (AS) share a heterogeneous cognitive profile. Studies assessing executive functions (EF) and social cognition in both groups have found preserved and impaired performances. These inconsistent findings would be partially explained by the cognitive variability reported in these disorders. First, the present study explored the inter-individual variability in EF and social cognition in both patient groups. Second, we compared differential characteristics and commonalities in the cognitive profiles of EF and social cognition between ADHD, AS and control adults. We assessed 22 patients with ADHD, 23 adults with AS and 21 matched typically developing subjects using different measures of EF (working memory, cognitive flexibility and multitasking) and social cognition (theory of mind and decision-making). Group comparisons and multiple case series analyses (MCSA) were conducted. The between-group comparisons showed an EF deficit in working memory in ADHD and a theory of mind (ToM) impairment in AS. The MCSA evidenced that, compared to controls, ADHD patients had a higher inter-individual variability in EF, while individuals with AS had a more heterogeneous profile in social cognition tasks compared to both groups. Finally, the AS and ADHD groups presented higher task-related variability compared to controls and shared a common heterogeneous profile in EF. This is the first study to compare variability in EF and social cognition profiles of ADHD and AS. We propose that heterogeneity in EF performance is a link between ADHD and AS which may explain the overlap of symptomatology between both diagnoses. In addition, patients with AS seem to show a unique heterogeneous profile in ToM which may explain the low probability of finding AS symptoms in patients with ADHD.
Otra información  En este trabajo, en colaboración con el NYU Langone Medical Center, estudiamos la heterogeneidad cognitiva con una aproximación metodológica novedosa en ADHD y síndrome de Asperger (SA), y demostramos la heterogeneidad en funciones ejecutivas esta compartida en ambos cuadros, mientras que la heterogeneidad en cognición social es única del perfil del SA