Gonzalez-Gadea ML, Chennu S, Bekinschtein TA, Rattazzi A, Beraudi A, Trippichio P, Moyano B, Soffita Y, Steinberg L, Adolfi F, Sigman M, Marino J, Manes F, Ibanez A. Predictive coding in Autism Spectrum Disorder and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. J Neurophysiol. Aug 26 2015

Predictive coding in Autism Spectrum Disorder and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

 

Autores Gonzalez-Gadea ML, Chennu S, Bekinschtein TA, Rattazzi A, Beraudi A, Trippichio P, Moyano B, Soffita Y, Steinberg L, Adolfi F, Sigman M, Marino J, Manes F, Ibanez A.
Año 2015
Journal J Neurophysiol
Volumen 10.1152/jn.00543.2015
Abstract Predictive coding has been proposed as a framework to understand neural processes in neuropsychiatric disorders. We used this approach to describe mechanisms responsible for attentional abnormalities in Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). We monitored brain dynamics of 59 children (8-15 years-old) who had ASD or ADHD or were control participants via high density-electroencephalography. We performed analysis at the scalp and source-space levels while participants listened to standard and deviant tone sequences. Through task instructions, we manipulated top-down expectation by presenting expected and unexpected deviant sequences. ASD children showed reduced superior frontal cortex (FC) responses to unexpected events but increased dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (PFC) activation to expected events. In contrast, ADHD children exhibited reduced cortical responses in superior FC to expected events but strong PFC activation to unexpected events. Moreover, neural abnormalities were associated with specific control mechanisms, namely inhibitory control in ASD and set-shifting in ADHD. Based on the predictive coding account, top-down expectation abnormalities could be attributed to a disproportionate reliance (precision) allocated to prior beliefs in ASD and to sensory input in ADHD.
Otra información En este estudio se examinaron los mecanismos cerebrales de la atención en niños con TEA y TDAH utilizando el marco de la codificación predictiva jerárquica (o predictive coding, PC). Los niños con TEA presentaron respuestas fronto-corticales reducidas frente a eventos inesperados, y aumento en la activación frontal tardía frente a los estímulos que demandaban atención durante la tarea. En cambio, los niños con TDAH presentaron respuestas corticales menores frente a los estímulos y aumento en la activación frontal frente a estímulos inesperados y/o novedosos. Los resultados permiten conectar por primera vez la PC con las manifestaciones clínicas de ambos cuadros.